Hardware Tips and Tricks - http://www.hardwaretipsandtricks.com
What is WiFi?
By Super Admin
Published on 11/21/2006
Wi-Fi (also WiFi, wifi, etc.) is a brand originally licensed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe the underlying technology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications.


It was developed to be used for mobile computing devices, such as laptops, in LANs, but is now increasingly used for more services, including Internet and VoIP phone access, gaming, and basic connectivity of consumer electronics such as televisions and DVD players, or digital cameras. More standards are in development that will allow Wi-Fi to be used by cars in highways in support of an Intelligent Transportation System to increase safety, gather statistics, and enable mobile commerce (see IEEE 802.11p). Wi-Fi® and the Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ logo are registered trademarks of the Wi-Fi Alliance® - the trade organization that tests and certifies equipment compliance with the 802.11x standards.

A person with a Wi-Fi enabled device such as a computer, cell phone or PDA can connect to the Internet when in proximity of an access point. The region covered by one or several access points is called a hotspot. Hotspots can range from a single room to many square miles of overlapping hotspots. Wi-Fi can also be used to create a mesh network. Both architectures are used in community networks, municipal wireless networks like Wireless Philadelphia, and metro-scale networks like M-Taipei.

Wi-Fi also allows connectivity in peer-to-peer mode, which enables devices to connect directly with each other. This connectivity mode is useful in consumer electronics and gaming applications.

When the technology was first commercialized there were many problems because consumers could not be sure that products from different vendors would work together. The Wi-Fi Alliance began as a community to solve this issue so as to address the needs of the end user and allow the technology to mature. The Alliance created the branding Wi-Fi CERTIFIED to show consumers that products are interoperable with other products displaying the same branding.

 Wi-Fi in gaming
Some gaming consoles and handhelds make use of Wi-Fi technology to enhance the gaming experience:

The Nintendo DS handheld is Wi-Fi compatible, although there is no built in encryption, most games do not support WPA encryption, only the weaker WEP.
The Sony PSP includes WLAN to connect to Wi-Fi hotspots or make wireless connections.
The Xbox 360 features 1 Wi-Fi accessory: A wireless network adapter.
The PlayStation 3 premium model ($599) features built-in Wi-Fi.
The Wii features Wi-Fi.

 Technical information

 Wi-Fi: How it works
A typical Wi-Fi setup contains one or more Access Points (APs) and one or more clients. An AP broadcasts its SSID (Service Set Identifier, "Network name") via packets that are called beacons, which are usually broadcast every 100 ms. The beacons are transmitted at 1 Mbit/s, and are of relatively short duration and therefore do not have a significant effect on performance. Since 1 Mbit/s is the lowest rate of Wi-Fi it assures that the client who receives the beacon can communicate at least 1 Mbit/s. Based on the settings (e.g. the SSID), the client may decide whether to connect to an AP. If two APs of the same SSID are in range of the client, the client firmware might use signal strength to decide which of the two APs to make a connection to. The Wi-Fi standard leaves connection criteria and roaming totally open to the client. This is a strength of Wi-Fi, but also means that one wireless adapter may perform substantially better than the other. Since Wi-Fi transmits in the air, it has the same properties as a non-switched ethernet network. Even collisions can therefore appear as in non-switched ethernet LAN's. Unlike a wired Ethernet, and like most packet radios, Wi-Fi cannot do collision detection, and instead uses a packet exchange (RTS/CTS used for Collision Avoidance or CA) to try to avoid collisions.

Except for 802.11a, which operates at 5 GHz, Wi-Fi uses the spectrum near 2.4 GHz, which is standardized and unlicensed by international agreement, although the exact frequency allocations vary slightly in different parts of the world, as does maximum permitted power. However, channel numbers are standardized by frequency throughout the world, so authorized frequencies can be identified by channel numbers.

The frequencies for 802.11 b/g span 2.400 GHz to 2.487 GHz. Each channel is 22 MHz wide yet there is a 5 MHz step to the next higher channel.

The maximum number of available channels for wi-fi enabled devices are: – 13 for Europe - 11 for North America - 14 for Japan

In North America, only channels 1, 6, and 11 are deployed for 802.11b/g.

 Advantages of Wi-Fi
Wireless Internet on the beach, Taba, EgyptAllows LANs to be deployed without cabling, typically reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion. Spaces where cables cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs.
Wi-Fi silicon pricing continues to come down, making Wi-Fi a very economical networking option and driving inclusion of Wi-Fi in an ever-widening array of devices.
Wi-Fi products are widely available in the market. Different brands of access points and client network interfaces are interoperable at a basic level of service. Products designated as Wi-Fi CERTIFIED by the Wi-Fi Alliance are interoperable and include WPA2 security.
Wi-Fi networks support roaming, in which a mobile client station such as a laptop computer can move from one access point to another as the user moves around a building or area.
Wi-Fi is a global set of standards. Unlike cellular carriers, the same Wi-Fi client works in different countries around the world.
Widely available in more than 250,000 public hot spots and millions of homes and corporate and university campuses worldwide.
As of 2006, WPA and WPA2 encryption are not easily crackable if strong passwords are used
New protocols for Quality of Service (WMM) and power saving mechanisms (WMM Power Save) make Wi-Fi even more suitable for latency-sensitive applications (such as voice and video) and small form-factor devices.

 Disadvantages of Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi can be interrupted by other devices, notably 2.4 GHz cordless phones and microwave ovens.
Spectrum assignments and operational limitations are not consistent worldwide; most of Europe allows for an additional 2 channels beyond those permitted in the US (1-13 vs 1-11); Japan has one more on top of that (1-14) - and some countries, like Spain, prohibit use of the lower-numbered channels. Furthermore some countries, such as Italy, used to require a 'general authorization' for any Wi-Fi used outside an operator's own premises, or require something akin to an operator registration. For Europe; consult http://www.ero.dk for an annual report on the additional restrictions each European country imposes.
EIRP in the EU is limited to 20dbm.
Power consumption is fairly high compared to some other standards, making battery life and heat a concern.
The most common wireless encryption standard, Wired Equivalent Privacy or WEP, has been shown to be breakable even when correctly configured.
Wi-Fi Access Points typically default to an open (encryption-free) mode. Novice users benefit from a zero configuration device that works out of the box but might not intend to provide open wireless access to their LAN. WPA Wi-Fi Protected Access which began shipping in 2003 aims to solve these problems and is now generally available, but adoption rates remain low.
Many 2.4 GHz 802.11b and 802.11g Access points default to the same channel, contributing to congestion on certain channels.
Wi-Fi networks have limited range. A typical Wi-Fi home router using 802.11b or 802.11g with a stock antenna might have a range of 45 m (150 ft) indoors and 90 m (300 ft) outdoors. Range also varies with frequency band, as Wi-Fi is no exception to the physics of radio wave propagation. Wi-Fi in the 2.4 GHz frequency block has better range than Wi-Fi in the 5 GHz frequency block, and less range than the oldest Wi-Fi (and pre-Wi-Fi) 900 MHz block. Outdoor range with improved antennas can be several kilometres or more with line-of-sight.
Wi-Fi pollution, meaning interference of a closed or encrypted access point with other open access points in the area, especially on the same or neighboring channel, can prevent access and interfere with the use of other open access points by others caused by overlapping channels in the 802.11g/b spectrum as well as with decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between access points. This is a widespread problem in high-density areas such as large apartment complexes or office buildings with many Wi-Fi access points.
It is also an issue when municipalities or other large entities such as universities seek to provide large area coverage. Everyone is considered equal when they use the band (except for amateur radio operators who are the primary licensee); often this causes contention when one user seeks to claim priority in this unlicensed band. This openness is also important to the success and widespread use of Wi-Fi, but makes Part 15 (US) unsuitable for "must have" public service functions.
Interoperability issues between brands or deviations from the standard can disrupt connections or lower throughput speeds on other user's devices within range. Wi-Fi Alliance programs test devices for interoperability and designate devices which pass testing as Wi-Fi CERTIFIED.
Wi-Fi networks can be monitored and used to read and copy data (including personal information) transmitted over the network when no encryption such as VPN is used.

 Examples of Standard Wi-Fi Devices

 Wireless Access Point (WAP)
A wireless access point (AP) connects a group of wireless stations to an adjacent wired local area network (LAN). An access point is similar to an ethernet hub, but instead of relaying LAN data only to other LAN stations, an access point can relay wireless data to all other compatible wireless devices as well as to a single (usually) connected LAN device, in most cases an ethernet hub or switch, allowing wireless devices to communicate with any other device on the LAN.

 Wireless Routers
A wireless router integrates a wireless access point with an IP router and an ethernet switch. The integrated switch connects the integrated access point and the integrated ethernet router internally, and allows for external wired ethernet LAN devices to be connected as well as a (usually) single WAN device such as cable modem or DSL modem. A wireless router advantageously allows all three devices (mainly the access point and router) to be configured through one central configuration utility, usually through an integrated web server.

 Wireless Ethernet Bridge
A wireless Ethernet bridge connects a wired network to a wireless network. This is different from an access point in the sense that an access point connects wireless devices to a wired network at the data-link layer. Two wireless bridges may be used to connect two wired networks over a wireless link, useful in situations where a wired connection may be unavailable, such as between two separate homes.

 Range Extender
A wireless range extender (or wireless repeater) can increase the range of an existing wireless network by being strategically placed in locations where a wireless signal is sufficiently strong and nearby locations that have poor to no signal strength. An example location would be at the corner of an L-shaped corridor, where the access point is at the end of one leg and a strong signal is desired at the end of the other leg. Another example would be 75% of the way between the access point and the edge of its useable signal. This would effectively increase the range by 75%.

 DIY Range Optimizations
USB-wifi adapters, food container can-antennas, parabole-reflectors, and many other types of self-built antennae are increasingly made by do-it-yourselvers. For minimal budgets, as low as a few dollars, signal strength and range can be improved dramatically.

 Wi-Fi and its support by operating systems
There are two sides to Wi-Fi support under an operating system. Driver level support and configuration and management support.

Driver support is usually provided by the manufacturer of the hardware or, in the case of Unix clones such as Linux and FreeBSD, sometimes through open source projects.

Configuration and management support consists of software to enumerate, join, and check the status of available Wi-Fi networks. This also includes support for various encryption methods. These systems are often provided by the operating system backed by a standard driver model. In most cases, drivers emulate an ethernet device and use the configuration and management utilities built into the operating system. In cases where built in configuration and management support is non-existent or inadequate, hardware manufacturers may include their own software to handle the respective tasks.

 Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows has comprehensive driver-level support for Wi-Fi, the quality of which depends on the hardware manufacturer. Hardware manufactures almost always ship Windows drivers with their products. Windows ships with very few Wi-Fi drivers and depends on the OEMs and device manufactures to make sure users get drivers. Configuration and management depend on the version of Windows.

Earlier versions of Windows, such as 98, ME and 2000 do not have built-in configuration and management support and must depend on software provided by the manufacturer
Microsoft Windows XP has built-in configuration and management support. The original shipping version of Windows XP included rudimentary support which was dramatically improved in Service Pack 2. Support for WPA2 and some other security protocols require updates from Microsoft. To make up for Windows’ inconsistent and sometimes inadequate configuration and management support, many hardware manufacturers include their own software and require the user to disable Windows’ built-in Wi-Fi support
Microsoft Windows Vista is expected to have improved Wi-Fi support over Windows XP. The original betas automatically connected to unsecured networks without the user’s approval. This is a large security issue for the owner of the respective unsecured access point and for the owner of the Windows Vista based computer because shared folders may be open to public access. The release candidate (RC1 or RC2) does not continue to display this behavior, requiring user permissions to connect to an unsecured network, as long as the user account is in the default configuaration with regards to User Account Control.

 Apple Mac OS X & Mac OS
Apple was an early adopter of Wi-Fi, introducing its AirPort product line, based on the 802.11b standard, in July 1999. Apple makes the Mac OS operating system, the computer hardware, and the accompanying drivers and configuration and management software, simplifying Wi-Fi integration. All Intel based Apple computers either come with or have the option to included AirPort Extreme cards. These cards are compatible with 802.11g. Many of Apple’s earlier PowerPC models came with Airport Extreme as well, and all Macs starting with the original iBook at least included AirPort slots.

Mac OS X has Wi-Fi support, including WPA2, and ships with drivers for Apple’s AirPort cards. Many third-party manufacturers make compatible hardware along with the appropriate drivers which work with Mac OS X’s built-in configuration and management software. Other manufacturers distribute their own software.
Apple's older Mac OS 9 does not have built in support for Wi-Fi configuration and management nor does it ship with Wi-Fi drivers, but Apple provides free drivers and configuration and management software for their AirPort cards for OS 9, as do a few other manufacturers. Versions of Mac OS before OS 9 predate Wi-Fi and do not have any Wi-Fi support.

 Unix-like systems
Linux, FreeBSD and similar Unix-like clones have much coarser support for Wi-Fi. Due to the open source nature of these operating systems, many different standards have been developed for configuring and managing Wi-Fi devices. The open source nature also fosters open source drivers which have enabled many third party and proprietary devices to work under these operating systems. See Comparison of Open Source Wireless Drivers for more information on those drivers.

Linux has patchy Wi-Fi support[1]. Native drivers for many Wi-Fi chipsets are available either commercially or at no cost[2], although some manufacturers don't produce a Linux driver, only a Windows one. Consequently, many popular chipsets either don't have a native Linux driver at all, or only have a half-finished one. For these, the freely available NdisWrapper and its commercial competitor DriverLoader[3] allow Windows x86 NDIS drivers to be used on x86-based Linux systems but not on other architectures. The FSF has some recommended cards[1] and more information can be found through the searchable Linux wireless site[2] As well as the lack of native drivers, some Linux distributions do not offer a convenient user interface and configuring Wi-Fi on them can be a clumsy and complicated operation compared to configuring wired Ethernet drivers[4].
FreeBSD has similar Wi-Fi support relative to Linux. Wi-Fi support under FreeBSD is best in the 6.x versions, which introduced full support for WPA and WPA2, although in some cases this is driver dependent. FreeBSD comes with drivers for many wireless cards and chipsets, including those made by Atheros, Ralink, Cisco, D-link, Netgear, and many Centrino chipsets, and provides support for others through the ports collection. FreeBSD also has "Project Evil", which provides the ability to use Windows x86 NDIS drivers on x86-based FreeBSD systems as NdisWrapper does on Linux, and Windows amd64 NDIS drivers on amd64-based systems[3].
NetBSD, OpenBSD, and DragonFly BSD have similar Wi-Fi support to FreeBSD. Code for some of the drivers, as well as the kernel framework to support them, is mostly shared among the 4 BSDs.

 Social concerns

 Unintended and intended use by outsiders
Florida man charged with stealing WiFiThe wireless access point provides no technological protection from unauthorized use of the network. Many business and residential users do not intend to close (secure) their access points but to leave them open for other users in the area. Some argue that it is proper etiquette to leave access points open for others to use just as one can expect to find open access points while on the road.

Measures to deter unauthorized users include suppressing the AP's service set identifier (SSID) broadcast, allowing only computers with known MAC addresses to join the network, and various encryption standards. Access points and computers using no encryption, or the older (pre-2003) Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption are vulnerable to eavesdropping by an attacker armed with packet sniffer software. If the eavesdropper has the ability to change his MAC address then he can potentially join the network by spoofing an authorised address.

WEP encryption can protect against casual snooping but may also produce a misguided sense of security since freely available tools such as AirSnort can quickly recover WEP encryption keys. Once it has seen 5-10 million encrypted packets, AirSnort will determine the encryption password in under a second.[5] The newer Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and IEEE 802.11i (WPA2) encyption standards do not have the serious weaknesses of WEP encryption.

Recreational exploration of other people's access points has become known as wardriving, and the leaving of graffiti describing available services as warchalking. These activities may be illegal in certain jurisdictions, but existing legislation and case-law is often unclear.

However, it is also common for people to unintentionally use others' Wi-Fi networks without explicit authorization. Operating systems such as Windows XP and Mac OS X automatically connect to an available wireless network, depending on the network configuration. A user who happens to start up a laptop in the vicinity of an access point may find the computer has joined the network without any visible indication. Moreover, a user intending to join one network may instead end up on another one if the latter's signal is stronger. In combination with automatic discovery of other network resources (see DHCP and Zeroconf) this could possibly lead wireless users to send sensitive data to the wrong destination, as described by Chris Meadows in the February 2004 RISKS Digest. [4]

In Singapore, using another person's Wi-Fi network is illegal under the Computer Misuse Act; A 17 year old has been arrested for simply tapping into his neighour's wireless Internet connection and faces up to 3 years' imprisonment and a fine.[6]

 Wi-Fi vs. amateur radio
In the US and Australia, a portion of the 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radio spectrum is also allocated to amateur radio users. In the US, FCC Part 15 rules govern non-licenced operators (i.e. most Wi-Fi equipment users). Under Part 15 rules, non-licensed users must "accept" (e.g. endure) interference from licensed users and not cause harmful interference to licensed users. Amateur radio operators are licensed users, and retain what the FCC terms "primary status" on the band, under a distinct set of rules (Part 97). Under Part 97, licensed amateur operators may construct their own equipment, use very high-gain antennas, and boost output power to 100 watts on frequencies covered by Wi-Fi channels 2-6. However, Part 97 rules mandate using only the minimum power necessary for communications, forbid obscuring the data, and require station identification every 10 minutes. Therefore, expensive automatic power-limiting circuitry is required to meet regulations, and the transmission of any encrypted data (for example https) is questionable.

In practice, microwave power amplifiers are expensive and decrease receive-sensitivity of link radios. On the other hand, the short wavelength at 2.4 GHz allows for simple construction of very high gain directional antennas. Although Part 15 rules forbid any modification of commercially constructed systems, amateur radio operators may modify commercial systems for optimized construction of long links, for example. Using only 200 mW link radios and high gain directional antennas, a very narrow beam may be used to construct reliable links with minimal radio frequency interference to other users.

Official Wi-Fi logoWi-Fi uses both single carrier direct-sequence spread spectrum radio technology (part of the larger family of spread spectrum systems) and multi-carrier OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) radio technology. Unlicensed spread spectrum was first authorized by the Federal Communications Commission in 1985 and these FCC regulations were later copied with some changes in many other countries enabling use of this technology in all major countries. These regulations then enabled the development of Wi-Fi, its onetime competitor HomeRF, and Bluetooth.

The precursor to Wi-Fi was invented in 1991 by NCR Corporation/AT&T (later Lucent & Agere Systems) in Nieuwegein, the Netherlands. It was initially intended for cashier systems; the first wireless products were brought on the market under the name WaveLAN with speeds of 1 Mbit/s to 2 Mbit/s. Vic Hayes, who was the primary inventor of Wi-Fi and has been named the 'father of Wi-Fi,' was involved in designing standards such as IEEE 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g.

 Origin and meaning of the term 'Wi-Fi'
Despite the similarity between the terms 'Wi-Fi' and 'Hi-Fi', statements reportedly [5] made by Phil Belanger of the Wi-Fi Alliance contradict the popular conclusion that 'Wi-Fi' stands for 'Wireless Fidelity.' According to Mr. Belanger, the Interbrand Corporation developed the brand 'Wi-Fi' for the Wi-Fi Alliance to use to describe WLAN products that are based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. In Mr. Belanger's words, "Wi-Fi and the yin yang style logo were invented by Interbrand. We (the founding members of the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance, now called the Wi-Fi Alliance) hired Interbrand to come up with the name and logo that we could use for our interoperability seal and marketing efforts. We needed something that was a little catchier than 'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'."

The Wi-Fi Alliance themselves invoked the term 'Wireless Fidelity' with the marketing of a tag line, "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity," but later removed the tag from their marketing. The Wi-Fi Alliance now seems to discourage propagation of the notion that 'Wi-Fi' stands for 'Wireless Fidelity', but it has been referred to as such by the Wi-Fi Alliance in White Papers currently held in their knowledge base:

"... a promising market for wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) network equipment." [6]

"A Short History of WLANs... The association created the Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) logo to indicate that a product had been certified for interoperability." [7]